Patients with cervical root compression were used as a "model" to investigate the possible importance of neck disorders and cervical sensory information in postural control. We assessed postural performance with posturography before and after treatment in 71 consecutive patients with MRI-verified cervical root compression without medullary compression. The patients were randomized to surgery (n = 22), physiotherapy (n = 24) or treatment with cervical collars (n = 25). There were no differences in postural performance or pain intensity between the groups before treatment. After treatment, the surgery group manifested significant improved postural performance and reduced neck pain scores, as compared to the two conservative treatment groups, and their postural performance had improved to the same level manifested by healthy controls. The conservative treatment groups manifested no consistent significant changes in postural performance or pain scores. Decreased muscular tension due to reduction of cervical pain after surgery and normalization of cervical proprioception are suggested as possible explanations of the improved postural control.