Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of acute otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. Because in recent years antibiotic-resistant pneumococcal strains have been emerging throughout the world, vaccination against pneumococcal infections has become more urgent. The capsular polysaccharide vaccine that has been available is neither immunogenic nor protective in young children and other immunocompromised patients. Several pneumococcal proteins have been proposed as candidate vaccines, but no human studies associated with them have been reported. Clinical trials of first-generation pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have shown that covalent coupling of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides to protein carriers improves the immunogenicity of the polysaccharides. The protective efficacy of the conjugate vaccines against carriage, acute otitis media, and invasive infections is being studied.