Objective: To define the antiplatelet efficacy and specificity of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex (GPIIb/IIIa) antagonist prodrug DMP754 and its free acid form, XV459.
Methods and materials: DMP754 has an IC50 > 1 mumol/l, and, upon its conversion with esterases to its free acid form, demonstrated high potency (IC50 20-45 nmol/l) in inhibiting human platelet aggregation induced by 10 mumol/l adenosine diphosphate, 20 micrograms/ml collagen, 1 mmol/l epinephrine, 10 mumol/l platelet activating factor or 0.5 IU/ml thrombin. The in-vitro rate of hydrolysis of DMP754 or XV459 is much faster with human or canine liver esterases (t 1/2 = 2.4-23 min) than with plasma esterases (t 1/2 = 5.5-7.6 h). Platelet GpIIb/IIIa integrin binding affinity and specificity for XV459 were determined using cell binding/adhesion assays.
Results: The range of IC50 values of XV459 in inhibiting platelet aggregation in platelet-rich plasma obtained from 12 subjects was 0.035-0.069 mumol/l with a mean IC50 of 0.050 +/- 0.003 mumol/l. Additionally, XV459 inhibited platelets obtained from mongrel dogs, baboons, sheep, guinea pigs, and mice with IC50 in the range 0.024-0.06 mumol/l, and IC50 in the range 0.16-5.8 mumol/l in pigs, rabbits, and rats. XV459 inhibited [125I]-fibrinogen binding to activated human platelets with an IC50 of 0.011 +/- 0.003 mumol/l. XV459 demonstrated a high degree of selectivity in specifically inhibiting fibrinogen binding to the platelet integrin, GPIIb/IIIa (IC50 = 0.00025 +/- 0.00005 mumol/l) compared with inhibiting other integrins (alpha v beta 3, IC50 > 10 mumol/l; or alpha v beta 5, alpha 5 beta 1, or alpha 4 beta 1, for which the IC50 exceeded 100 mumol/l).
Conclusion: DMP754 is a potent antiplatelet agent in inhibiting platelet aggregation, and has a high specificity and affinity for human platelet GPIIb/IIIa receptors.