The Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale in people with arthritis

Arthritis Care Res. 1996 Jun;9(3):189-96. doi: 10.1002/1529-0131(199606)9:3<189::aid-anr1790090307>;2-#.


Objective: To examine the comprehensibility, reliability, and validity of a trait measure, the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), among people with arthritis. The scale is designed to measure perceived coping ability across a wide range of demanding situations.

Methods: Four studies were conducted. Study 1 tested the comprehensibility of the GSES. Studies 2, 3, and 4 tested the reliability and validity of the modified scale. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires. Reliability and structure of the GSES were examined using standard item analysis, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), test-retest reliability, and factor analyses. Concurrent and predictive validity were examined in relation to demographic, physical, psychological, and social dimensions.

Results: The GSES assessed a unitary concept. Higher generalized self-efficacy was associated with greater psychological well-being, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The GSES was independent of age and physical health status.

Conclusions: The GSES is a reliable and valid measure for use among community-based samples of people with arthritis and may be a useful indicator of general adaptational outcomes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological*
  • Aged
  • Arthritis / prevention & control*
  • Arthritis / psychology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Self Care*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires / standards*