Idiopathic prostatitis is a common, often chronic condition in which psychological factors are suspected to play a role. Men with chronic prostatitis (n = 51) and a control group of 34 men without any chronic pain condition, equivalent on demographic characteristics, were compared on psychological and perineal muscle tension measures. Prostate-specific antigen and expressed prostatic secretion cell counts were also measured. Chronic prostatitis patients were consistently more elevated than controls on hypochondriasis, depression, and hysteria (MMPI), and on somaticization and depression (Brief Symptom Inventory), and were less elevated on masculine/instrumentality (Personal Attributes Questionnaire) scales. A cluster analysis of MMPI profiles revealed that 57% of the chronic prostatitis patients produced generally unelevated MMPI profiles, whereas the remaining 43% fell into two groups with distinct patterns of distress. The results indicate depression and psychosocial distress are common among chronic prostatitis patients, calling for careful evaluation and attention to psychological symptoms.