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, 29 (2-3), 237-52

Blood Levels of Histamine, IL-1 Beta, and TNF-alpha in Patients With Mild to Moderate Alzheimer Disease


Blood Levels of Histamine, IL-1 Beta, and TNF-alpha in Patients With Mild to Moderate Alzheimer Disease

X A Alvarez et al. Mol Chem Neuropathol.


In this study, we have evaluated the levels of blood histamine, serum interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in 20 patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD; 13 early onset and 7 late-onset AD subjects) and in 20 age-matched control subjects (C). AD patients showed higher concentrations of histamine (AD = 452.9 +/- 237.9 pmol/mL; C = 275.3 +/- 151.5 pmol/mL; p < 0.05) and IL-1 beta (AD = 211.2 +/- 31.1 pg/mL; C = 183.4 +/- 24.4 pg/mL; p < 0.01), and lower values of TNF-alpha (AD = 3.59 +/- 2.02 pg/mL; C = 9.47 +/- 2.64 pg/mL; p < 0.001) than elderly controls. Increased levels of histamine and decreased levels of TNF-alpha were observed in both early onset AD (EOAD) and late-onset AD (LOAD) patients, but only EOAD subjects had elevated serum IL-1 beta values compared with age-matched controls. Age negatively correlated with histamine (r = -0.57; p < 0.05) and positively with IL-1 beta levels (r = 0.48; p < 0.05) in healthy subjects, but not in AD, whereas a positive correlation between TNF-alpha scores and age was only found in AD patients (r = 0.46; p < 0.05). Furthermore, histamine and TNF-alpha values correlated negatively in AD (r = -0.50, p < 0.05). In addition, cognitive impairment increased in patients with lower TNF-alpha and higher histamine and IL-1 beta levels, as indicated by the correlations between mental performance scores and histamine (r = -0.37, ns), IL-1 beta (r = -0.33, ns) and TNF-alpha levels (r = 0.42, p < 0.05). Finally, histamine concentrations decreased as depression scores increased in AD (r = -0.63, p < 0.01). These data suggest a dysfunction in cytokine and histamine regulation in AD, probably indicating changes associated with inflammatory processes.

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