This study evaluates the nature of glycated human insulin formed following exposure to hyperglycemic conditions in vitro. Glycated insulin was purified by RP-HPLC and its molecular mass (5971.3 Da) determined by plasma desorption mass spectrometry (MS). The difference in mass (163.7 Da) from nonglycated insulin (5807.6 Da) corresponds to a single reduced glucose (glucitol) residue. Following reduction of insulin disulfide bridges, MS confirmed that the B-chain was glycated. Enzymatic digestions with trypsin, endoproteinase Glu-C, and thermolysin, followed by RP-HPLC and identification of fragments by MS, localized glycation to the B-chain (1-5) region. Electrospray tandem MS identified the site of glycation as the B-chain NH2-terminal Phe1 residue. This was confirmed by automated Edman degradation with glycated human insulin.