As the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection increases throughout the world, there becomes a greater probability that the primary care clinician will be confronted by AIDS-related complications. Neuro-ophthalmic problems, including optic neuropathies, motility disturbances, and visual field defects, are an important and common part of the AIDS spectrum. However diverse and challenging to the clinician, they may be the initial presentation of HIV infection. While opportunistic infections and neoplasms comprise the major source of neuro-ophthalmic problems, HIV itself may also be included. This paper is a review of the common causes of AIDS-related neuro-ophthalmic disorders and their clinical manifestations.