Response of the neonatal rat cardiomyocyte in culture to energy depletion: effects of cytokines, nitric oxide, and heat shock proteins

Lab Invest. 1996 Dec;75(6):809-18.


Cytokines exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the heart, some of which may be mediated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) expression. We studied the effects of cytokine-mediated NO synthesis on cell injury in the presence of deoxyglucose (DOG) and cyanide (CV)(20 mM DOG and 2 mM CN) for up to 3 hours and during recovery (18 hours). The influence of heat shock protein-70 on the extent of myocyte damage was also assessed. IL-1 beta and gamma-IFN act synergistically to enhance NO synthesis by cardiac myocytes. When these cytokines are present, the rate of ATP depletion after DOG and CN is significantly greater than in their absence. When IL-1 beta and gamma-IFN are added with the NOS inhibitor, L-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA), or when a cytokine that does not produce NO (TNF-alpha) is present, the rate of ATP depletion is no different from the rate seen with DOG and CN alone. After recovery for 18 hours, myocytes that were exposed to IL-1 beta and gamma-IFN release more lactic dehydrogenase and have significantly lower levels of ATP. L-NMMA decreases lactic dehydrogenase release and maintains ATP at levels similar to metabolically inhibited cells in the absence of these cytokines. Consistent with the decreased recovery in ATP with cells incubated with DOG and CN plus IL-1 beta and gamma-IFN is a decrease in cytochrome oxidase activity. Decreases in cellular ATP correspond to increased levels of heat shock protein-70 measured in myocytes after 18 hours of recovery after metabolic inhibition in the presence of IL-1 beta and gamma-IFN. In contrast, prior induction of heat shock protein-70 reduces the rate of ATP depletion in myocytes treated with DOG and CN and maintains ATP at levels that are significantly higher than those seen in non-heat-shocked cells. Recovery of cells exposed to heat shock is also greater, as seen by decreased lactic dehydrogenase and citrate synthase release. The heat-shocked myocytes contain significantly more glycogen than the cells that were not heat shocked. The increased cellular glycogen is likely responsible for the greater lactate production and slower rates of ATP depletion in the heat-shocked, metabolically inhibited cells. Cell survival under conditions of metabolic inhibition is closely related to cellular ATP preservation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Citrate (si)-Synthase / metabolism
  • Cyanides / pharmacology
  • Cytokines / toxicity*
  • Deoxyglucose / pharmacology
  • Electron Transport Complex IV / metabolism
  • Energy Metabolism / drug effects*
  • Glycogen / metabolism
  • HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism*
  • Heart / drug effects*
  • Interferon-gamma / pharmacology
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / analysis
  • Myocardium / metabolism*
  • Myocardium / pathology*
  • Nitric Oxide / biosynthesis
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase / biosynthesis*
  • Rats
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology
  • omega-N-Methylarginine / pharmacology*


  • Cyanides
  • Cytokines
  • HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • omega-N-Methylarginine
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Glycogen
  • Deoxyglucose
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase
  • Electron Transport Complex IV
  • Citrate (si)-Synthase