Hearing loss in infants and children may be sensorineural, conductive, or mixed. Severity varies from mild to profound. Educational initiatives aimed at children, parents, and primary health care providers could help prevent needless permanent hearing impairment. Effective programs aimed at education and hearing conservation among children and adolescents are overdue. The causes of sensorineural hearing loss, the concept of multidisciplinary team evaluation, and measurement of hearing are discussed. Advances in genetics of hearing loss are reviewed.