In the present study, the reciprocal connections between the piriform cortex and the prefrontal areas are described on the basis of experiments using the anterograde and the retrograde transport of the cholera toxin B subunit (CTb). Following CTb injections placed in the anterior part of the piriform cortex, retrogradely labeled cells and anterogradely labeled fibers were mainly found in the ventrolateral and lateral orbital areas as well as in the anterior part of the agranular insular cortex. Following injections placed in the posterior part of the piriform cortex, the CTb labeling was primarily observed in the infralimbic area and the posterior part of the agranular insular cortex. Thus, we described a topographical organization of the direct reciprocal connections between the anterior and the posterior parts of the piriform cortex parts and some prefrontal areas. This could support a differential modulation of the olfactory processing along the rostrocaudal dimension of the piriform cortex.