This meta-analytic review addresses the issue of how a woman's risk of breast cancer relates to the likelihood that she will obtain mammography screenings. Studies that compared women with or without a family history of breast cancer (n = 19) showed that women with a family history were more likely to have been screened. Studies that measured perceived risk (n = 19) showed that feeling vulnerable to breast cancer was positively related to having obtained a screening. Studies that compared women who did or did not have a history of breast problems (n = 10) showed that those with a positive history were more likely to have been screened. Finally, studies that measured worry (n = 6) showed that greater worry was related to higher screening levels. Taken together, these data suggest that increasing perceptions of personal vulnerability may increase screening behavior for breast cancer.