In most developed countries infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria are causing an increasing proportion of all mycobacterial infections in children. The major clinical syndromes caused by these ubiquitous organisms include pulmonary infections, lymphadenitis, otologic infections, skin and soft tissue infections, indwelling catheter infection, and disseminated infections. Of these, cervical lymphadenitis is the most frequently encountered entity in children, whereas pulmonary infection is rare in this age group. Chronic otorrhea caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria has recently been described. Because many of these infections are similar in presentation to tuberculosis, it is imperative to exclude this diagnosis. The clinical manifestations and management of these infections in children are discussed in this article.