Neuroimaging is playing an increasingly important role in the evaluation of patients with malformations of cerebral cortical development. In this review, the authors address optimal neuroimaging of cortical malformations using x-ray computed tomography, single-photon-emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Initially, the authors discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the various imaging techniques. This is followed by a discussion of the clinical and neuroimaging characteristics of several different imaging manifestations of focal malformations of cortical development, including polymicrogyria, focal subcortical heterotopia, schizencephaly, focally thickened gyri, focally irregular gyri, hemimegalencephaly, and transmural dysplasia. The authors intend that, after reading this review, the reader will have a better understanding of the optimal neuroimaging techniques for evaluating these malformations and their many neuroimaging appearances.