It has been previously demonstrated that macrophage colony stimulating factor (CSF-1) is produced by uterine epithelial cells in response to estrogen and progesterone. Studies in normal and op/op mice demonstrated that accumulation of a portion of the uterine macrophage population could be attributed to the chemotactic properties of CSF-1. Op/op mice exhibit greatly reduced rates of fertility, but successful pregnancy is not completely blocked. Also, uteri from op/op mice are not completely macrophage deficient. There are two possible explanations for this. One is that not all tissue macrophages are recruited from the bone marrow pool; some may be derived from primitive mesenchyme. Alternatively, tissue macrophages may be recruited from the bone marrow pool through expression of other type 1 chemokines such as JE, RANTES, MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, IP-10, and KC. Both RANTES and JE are expressed at higher levels than CSF-1 during early pregnancy. The variable expression and relative role of these various chemokines in pregnancy was addressed by measuring mRNA expression during the first 8 days of pregnancy and in a pseudopregnant model. The expression of these various genes relative to macrophage numbers and macrophage distribution will be discussed. The relative role of these various factors in preparing the uterus for blastocyst implantation will be discussed.