Three doses of buprenorphine (BUP) were administered by osmotic minipump from day 8 of gestation through parturition. In addition to 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg/day of BUP, a vehicle control group received sterile water via minipump and a nontreated control group was left undisturbed during pregnancy. All treated and control litters were fostered at birth to untreated dams. BUP produced a dose response reduction in maternal water intake and reduced maternal weight gain among the two high dose groups; resorptions and birthweight were unaffected. BUP increased perinatal mortality in the two high dose groups compared with the vehicle controls and produced inconsistent effects on postnatal growth. To examine the effects of BUP on the rest-activity cycle of the offspring, groups of 3 littermates from each of the treated and control groups were tested for an 8 h observation period on electronic activity monitors at 22 and 30 days of age. Unlike previous effects described for prenatally administered methadone, a disruption in the rest-activity cycle was not observed for any of the BUP treated groups.