Linkage studies have led to the identification of several chromosome regions that may contain susceptibility loci to type I diabetes (IDDM), in addition to the HLA and INS loci. These include two on chromosome 6q, denoted IDDM5 and IDDM8, that are not linked to HLA. In a previous study, we noticed that the evidence for linkage to IDDM susceptibility around the HLA locus extended over a total distance of 100 cM, which suggested to us that another susceptibility locus could reside near HLA. We developed a statistical method to test this hypothesis in a panel of 523 multiplex families from France, the United States, and Denmark (a total of 667 affected sib pairs, 536 with both parents genotyped), and here present evidence (P = .00003) of a susceptibility locus for IDDM located 32 cM from HLA in males but not linked to HLA in females and distinct from IDDM5 and IDDM8. A new statistical method to test for the presence of a second susceptibility locus linked to a known first susceptibility locus (here HLA) is presented. In addition, we analyzed our current family panel with markers for IDDM5 and IDDM8 on chromosome 6 and found suggestions of linkage for both of these loci (P = .002 and .004, respectively, on the complete family panel). When cumulated with previously published results, with overlapping families removed, the affected-sib-pair tests had a significance of P = .0001 for IDDM5 and P = .00004 for IDDM8.