In this study, the authors present the results of 50 dissections of the anterior choroidal a. in man. Fifty cerebral hemispheres were prepared with the classic techniques of preservation and vascular injection. An ectopic origin was observed in 4% of cases. The intracisternal segment of the anterior choroidal a. forms a neurovascular bundle with the optic tract and basal v. Most of its intraparenchymatous branches arise from the cisternal segment, while branches supplying the optic tract, lateral geniculate body and thalamus arise from the intraplexual segment. Constant anastomoses exist with the vertebrobasilar system, specially the postero-lateral choroidal and posterior cerebral aa. We discuss the importance of an adequate knowledge of the anatomy of the anterior choroidal a. and its relations in the surgical approach to arterial aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations of the region.