Gbetagamma dimers of heterotrimeric G proteins have been shown to be important for the translocation of cytosolic proteins to membranes. The involvement of Gbetagamma in those signaling processes mediated by small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family was studied using purified proteins. We showed specific binding of bovine brain Gbetagamma to immobilized GST-Rho fusion proteins. In addition, brain Gbetagamma, but not transducin Gbetagamma, was able to inhibit GTPgammaS binding to GST-Rho in a concentration-dependent manner. GTPgammaS binding to GST-Rac was also decreased by brain Gbetagamma whereas nucleotide binding to GST-Cdc42 was not changed. We conclude that Gbetagamma dimers may participate in the process of membrane attachment and/or other regulations of Rho and Rac.