In this paper, we describe a clinicopathological study of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with alcoholic liver disease without hepatitis virus infection. In 180 HCC patients who were admitted to Asahikawa Medical College Hospital from 1987 to 1995, 10 patients (6%) had HCC associated with pure alcoholic liver disease (Al-HCC), whereas the HCC in 165 patients was associated with chronic viral liver diseases, in 2 with primary biliary cirrhosis, in 1 each with coexistence of the hepatitis C virus infection and hemochromatosis, and in 2 with cirrhosis of unknown origin. In the Al-HCC group, all patients were male. The diagnosis of HCC was obtained at the age of 54 to 67 years old, and the duration of ethanol intake was 33 to 40 years. Four cases had a history of temperance. As an underlying liver disease, liver fibrosis was found in three cases and liver cirrhosis in seven cases. HCC was diagnosed histologically in all cases. Serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II were positive in patients with advanced HCC. In cases with small HCC, the tumor was resected surgically in three cases and percutaneous ethanol injection was performed in two cases. In four cases with small HCC, the patients were alive without tumor recurrence during the observation period. In advanced HCC, transcatheter arterial chemolipiodolization was performed. In the analysis of genetic polymorphism of ALDH 2, all Al-HCC had ALDH 2(1)/2(1).