An enzyme that deacetylates N-acetylglucosamine to glucosamine from Vibrio cholerae non-O1 was purified to homogeneity by sequential procedures. The native enzyme had a molecular mass of 190,000 Da and was predicted to be composed of four identical subunits with molecular masses of 45,000 Da. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylglucosamine 6-phosphate, and N-acetylglucosamine 6-sulfate, but not chitin oligosaccharides, and N-acetylgalactosamine. The deacetylase activity was completely abolished by N-ethylmaleimide, p-chloromercuribenzoate, EDTA, and Cu2+. On the other hand, the activity was activated by Co2+. The amino-terminal amino acids of the purified enzyme were sequenced. Among the 22 N-terminal amino acid residues, 12 residues of Vibrio deacetylase were identical with that of Escherichia coli GlcNAc 6-phosphate deacetylase.