This study was undertaken to evaluate the histological reaction of cultured endothelial cells to endovascular embolic materials in vitro. Endothelial cells were isolated and cultured from a canine carotid artery. Embolic materials (platinum microcoils, polyvinyl alcohol particles, silicon balloons, or silk threads), either in their normal state or after having been coated with type 1 collagen, fibronectin, or laminin, were placed on endothelial cells and cocultured for 6, 12, and 24 hours and 2, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days. The cocultures were investigated histologically using a scanning electron microscope. Endothelial cells were not found on any uncoated embolic materials, even at 21 days. On the materials coated with fibronectin or laminin, endothelial cells began to proliferate in 7 days, covering the materials extensively in 14 days. On the other hand, endothelial cells began to proliferate on the collagen-coated materials in 3 days, covering them extensively in 7 days and reaching confluence with a cobblestone pattern in 21 days. The densities of endothelial cells on collagen-coated materials were much higher than those observed on the materials coated with other extracellular matrices. Future advantages of the clinical use of collagen-coated embolic materials in interventional treatment are discussed.