Aujeszky's Disease (AD), a serious illness of pigs causing significant economic losses in the pig industry, is caused by Pseudorabies Virus (PrV). PrV belongs to the alphaherpesvirus subfamily of the herpesviruses with a double-stranded DNA genome in an enveloped capsid capable of encoding approximately 70 proteins. For disease control, vaccination with live and killed vaccines is performed. Recently, 'marked' vaccines have become available for use in eradication programs based on the differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals. PrV is also used as a viral vector for the development of multivalent vaccines. Despite the effectiveness of PrV vaccines, relatively little is known about the immune response against PrV infection. Several viral envelope glycoproteins have been shown to represent targets for antibody responses, and a number of isolated glycoproteins as well as genetically engineered proteins were able to elicit protective immunity. The nature of the cellular immune response is even less defined. Using viral mutants genetically engineered to lack specific antigens, it has been shown that glycoprotein C (gC) acts as a target for cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and gB, gC, gD, and gH appear to be involved in stimulation of in vitro proliferation of PBMC from immune animals. In addition, gB and gC have been implicated in recognition of infected cells by lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. In summary, the data indicate a prominent role for viral envelope glycoproteins in eliciting humoral and cellular immune responses in the animal host. A complicating factor is the ability of PrV to productively infect cells of the hematopoietic system, which may impair immune responses and might also play a role in persistent or latent infection.