An Outbreak of Gastroenteritis and Fever Due to Listeria Monocytogenes in Milk

N Engl J Med. 1997 Jan 9;336(2):100-5. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199701093360204.


Background: After an outbreak of gastroenteritis and fever among persons who attended a picnic in Illinois, chocolate milk served at the picnic was found to be contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes.

Methods: In investigating this outbreak, we interviewed the people who attended the picnic about what they ate and their symptoms. Surveillance for invasive listeriosis was initiated in the states that receive milk from the implicated dairy. Stool and milk samples were cultured for L. monocytogenes. Serum samples were tested for IgG antibody to listeriolysin O.

Results: Forty-five persons had symptoms that met the case definition for illness due to L. monocytogenes, and cultures of stool from 11 persons yielded the organism. Illness in the week after the picnic was associated with the consumption of chocolate milk. The most common symptoms were diarrhea (present in 79 percent of the cases) and fever (72 percent). Four persons were hospitalized. The median incubation period for infection was 20 hours (range, 9 to 32), and persons who became ill had elevated levels of antibody to listeriolysin O. Isolates from stool specimens from patients who became ill after the picnic, from sterile sites in three additional patients identified by surveillance, from the implicated chocolate milk, and from a tank drain at the dairy were all serotype 1/2b and were indistinguishable on multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, ribotyping, and DNA macrorestriction analysis.

Conclusions: L. monocytogenes is a cause of gastroenteritis with fever, and sporadic cases of invasive listeriosis may be due to unrecognized outbreaks caused by contaminated food.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Bacterial / blood
  • Cacao
  • Disease Outbreaks*
  • Feces / microbiology
  • Fever / epidemiology
  • Fever / microbiology
  • Food Contamination
  • Gastroenteritis / epidemiology*
  • Gastroenteritis / microbiology*
  • Humans
  • Illinois / epidemiology
  • Listeria monocytogenes / classification
  • Listeria monocytogenes / immunology
  • Listeria monocytogenes / isolation & purification
  • Listeriosis / epidemiology*
  • Listeriosis / microbiology
  • Milk / microbiology
  • Milk / poisoning*
  • Serotyping


  • Antibodies, Bacterial