Craniofacial anomalies and malformations in respiratory chain deficiency

Am J Med Genet. 1996 Dec 30;66(4):457-63. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19961230)66:4<457::AID-AJMG15>3.0.CO;2-T.


We report on facial anomalies including round face, high forehead, flat philtrum, apparently low-set ears, and short neck in 4 unrelated patients with mitochondrial respiratory enzyme deficiency. Pre- and postnatal growth retardation with microcephaly, brachydactyly, and hypoplasia of distal and middle phalanges was present in all 4 cases. The diagnosis of respiratory chain deficiency was confirmed by enzymatic and molecular studies. The combination of facial anomalies, prenatal growth failure, and malformations is suggestive of antenatal expression of the disease, and raises the question of the part that respiratory chain deficiencies play in human malformations.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / enzymology*
  • Craniofacial Abnormalities / enzymology*
  • Electron Transport
  • Enzymes / deficiency
  • Failure to Thrive
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Lymphocytes / enzymology
  • Male
  • Mitochondria / enzymology
  • Mitochondria, Liver / enzymology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / enzymology
  • Skin / cytology
  • Skin / enzymology


  • Enzymes