Comparative analysis of AP-2 alpha and AP-2 beta gene expression during murine embryogenesis

Dev Dyn. 1997 Jan;208(1):115-24. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0177(199701)208:1<115::AID-AJA11>3.0.CO;2-5.


Transcription factor AP-2 has been identified as playing important roles during embryonic development of the neural tube, neural crest derivatives, skin, and urogenital tissues. Recently, we isolated a second AP-2 transcription factor, AP-2 beta, which is 76% homologous to the previously known AP-2 alpha gene, and showed that both genes are coexpressed in murine embryos at day 13.5 and 15.5 post coitum (pc). In the current study, we used specific cRNA probes to study comparatively AP-2 alpha and AP-2 beta expression by in situ hybridization of murine embryonic tissue sections. Our results reveal that expression of both genes starts at day 8 pc in the lateral head mesenchyme and extraembryonic trophoblast. The expression pattern was identical until day 10 pc but diverged significantly during later stages of development. From day 11 forward, specific expression patterns of AP-2 alpha and AP-2 beta mRNA were observed. Specific AP-2 beta signals were detected in the midbrain, sympathetic ganglia, adrenal medulla, and cornea. Specific AP-2 alpha signals were present in the limb buds, dorsal root ganglia, tooth germs, and Moll's and Meibom's glands. In contrast, expression of both genes occurred in skin, facial mesenchyme, spinal cord, cerebellum, and renal tubular epithelia. Our results indicate that both genes are expressed with different temporal and spatial patterns during embryonic development.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Central Nervous System / chemistry
  • Central Nervous System / embryology*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • Embryonic and Fetal Development / genetics
  • Eye / chemistry
  • Eye / embryology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • Kidney Medulla / chemistry
  • Kidney Medulla / embryology
  • Limb Buds / chemistry
  • Lip / chemistry
  • Lip / embryology
  • Mesoderm / chemistry
  • Mice
  • Organ Specificity
  • Peripheral Nervous System / chemistry
  • Peripheral Nervous System / embryology
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • Tooth Germ / chemistry
  • Tooth Germ / embryology
  • Transcription Factor AP-2
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Trophoblasts / chemistry


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Tfap2a protein, mouse
  • Tfap2b protein, mouse
  • Transcription Factor AP-2
  • Transcription Factors