B-cell-derived granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF)

Methods. 1997 Jan;11(1):143-7. doi: 10.1006/meth.1996.0398.


Biologically active granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) was released spontaneously in culture by in vivo activated tonsillar B lymphocytes and, in particular, by the germinal center (GC) B-cell subset. In contrast, mantle zone B cells failed to produce the cytokine under any of the culture conditions tested. A CD40 monoclonal antibody (mAb), recombinant (r) IL4, and the combination of the CD40 mAb and rIL4 all increased G-CSF production by GC B cells. The augmentation of G-CSF release correlated with the increased survival of GC B cells. rG-CSF rescued GC B cells from apoptosis, suggesting that the cytokine may be utilized in autocrine and/or paracrine ways. Neoplastic B cells from follicular center cell lymphoma patients, which are the counterparts of normal GC B lymphocytes, also released G-CSF spontaneously in culture. In contrast, malignant B cells from a subset of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients had to be stimulated with Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I or CD40 mAb in combination with rIL4 or rIL2 to produce G-CSF in vitro. Some B-CLL cell suspensions were rescued from spontaneous apoptosis following culture in the presence of rG-CSF. Taken together, these studies provide the first demonstration that G-CSF (i) is produced by either normal or neoplastic human B lymphocytes and (ii) participates in the modulation of apoptosis of the same cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Apoptosis / physiology
  • B-Lymphocytes / metabolism*
  • CD40 Antigens / immunology
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Gene Expression Regulation / genetics
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / metabolism*
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-2 / pharmacology
  • Interleukin-4 / pharmacology
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / metabolism
  • Lymphoma / metabolism
  • Recombinant Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • CD40 Antigens
  • Interleukin-2
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • Interleukin-4