In many centers, voiding cystourethrography is a routine part of pretransplantation assessment of the lower urinary tract. To assess the value of this investigation, a retrospective review of transplant candidates evaluated in our center over 2 years was undertaken. A total of 517 patients were fully evaluable. Only 13 voiding cystourethrograms (VCUGs) (2.5%) of 517 were found to be abnormal. Three patients with reflux alone did not require intervention before transplantation. Four patients with decreased bladder capacity underwent hydrodistention. Two patients increased their capacity to over 150 ml and two patients failed distention, one requiring an ileal conduit and the other requiring an augmentation cystoplasty. Three patients had increased postvoid residual (PVR). Two patients started clean intermittent catheterization. One required prostate resection for benign prostatic hypertrophy. One patient with reflux and decreased bladder capacity refused treatment. One patient with reflux combined with increased PVR started clean intermittent catheterization and was cleared for transplant surgery. One patient with decreased bladder capacity and increased PVR had a stroke and was excluded from transplantation. All 13 patients with abnormal VCUGs had a prior urologic history. In total, only 56 of 517 patients evaluated had a prior urological history. Each VCUG costs approximately $500. Limiting VCUG studies to those patients with a prior urological history would have resulted in a significant cost savings. Hence, we recommend that only patients with a prior urological history should undergo this costly and often distressing examination.