Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: structures and function

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1996 Dec 27;804:252-65. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1996.tb18620.x.


We have been attempting to elucidate the molecular mechanisms through which peroxisome proliferators exert their pleiotropic effects, with particular emphasis on understanding why humans appear unresponsive to these compounds. There is a wealth of data to implicate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) in mediating these effects in rodent species; PPAR alpha is expressed in tissues that show physiological changes in response to PPs, is transcriptionally activated in vitro by a variety of PPs, and it has been recently demonstrated that mice lacking this receptor are refractory to the effects of clofibrate and Wy-14,643, at least in the short term. It is conceivable that differences in PPAR alpha between responsive rodent and unresponsive human subjects may provide the key to understanding the basis of this species variation in response, and with this in mind we have been studying the biology of PPAR alpha in humans and looking at interindividual variation. There is already published evidence, albeit on only two sequences, for structural and functional polymorphism in human PPAR alphas. We have extended these findings, and shown that: There is considerable variation in hPPAR alpha cDNAs obtained from different individuals, both at the gross structural level (lack of a coding exon) and of a more subtle nature (single base changes leading to amino acid substitutions). One such cDNA, the sequence of which differs at only three amino acids from that published, encodes a receptor that is incapable of transcriptional activation by potent PPs. The degree to which hPPAR alpha transcripts are expressed in human livers can vary by up to an order of magnitude between individuals. The tissue-specific expression profile of PPAR alpha in humans is very different from that in rat and mouse. In particular, the human liver contains generally low levels of PPAR alpha in contrast to the responsive rodents, in which potent PPs cause liver tumors. Taken together, these data suggest first that human and rodent PPAR alphas differ according to a number of molecular and biochemical criteria, and secondly that there is a degree of interindividual variation in PPAR alpha structure and function. Studies are ongoing to clarify this further, but human polymorphism may go some way towards explaining the apparent paradox that active PPAR alpha receptors can be isolated from an "unresponsive" species.

MeSH terms

  • Acyl-CoA Oxidase
  • Animals
  • DNA, Complementary / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Microbodies / physiology*
  • Oxidoreductases / genetics
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • Rats
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear / physiology*
  • Species Specificity
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Transcription Factors / physiology*


  • DNA, Complementary
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
  • Transcription Factors
  • Oxidoreductases
  • Acyl-CoA Oxidase

Associated data

  • GENBANK/Y07619