Dynamics and equilibrium behavior of cytonuclear disequilibria under genetic drift, mutation, and migration

Theor Popul Biol. 1996 Dec;50(3):298-324. doi: 10.1006/tpbi.1996.0033.


A simple two-locus drift model for cytonuclear systems is developed, in which the stochastic dynamics of cytonuclear genotypic frequencies are specified. Random union of zygotes is assumed. Trajectories for the first two moments of both genotypic and allelic disequilibria are given under three scenarios: (i) random drift alone; (ii) random drift with mutation; and (iii) random drift with migration. Steady state solutions for the cytonuclear disequilibria are reported. The utility of this simple two-locus drift model in testing the neutrality of mitochondrial DNA markers in artificial hybrid zones is briefly illustrated

MeSH terms

  • DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics*
  • Emigration and Immigration*
  • Gene Frequency*
  • Genotype
  • Models, Genetic*
  • Mutation / genetics*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Stochastic Processes


  • DNA, Mitochondrial