Maternal and fetal outcomes in hyperemesis gravidarum

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1996 Dec;55(3):231-5. doi: 10.1016/s0020-7292(96)02778-6.


Objective: This study sought to evaluate maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes among women with hyperemesis gravidarum.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of pregnancy records of obstetric admissions during a 6-year period. Women treated as out-patients for hyperemesis were also identified. Hyperemesis was defined as excessive nausea and vomiting resulting in dehydration, extensive medical therapy, and/or hospital admission. Statistical analysis was by t-test and chi square.

Results: We identified 193 women (1.5%) who developed hyperemesis among 13,053 women. Racial status, marital status, age, and gravidity were similar between the hyperemesis patients and the general population. However, there were less women with hyperemesis who were para 3 or greater. Forty-six women (24%) required hospitalization for hyperemesis, mean hospital stay 1.8 days, range 1-10 days. One patient required parenteral nutrition, two had yeast esophagitis, none had HIV infection, psychiatric pathology or thyroid disease. Pregnancy outcomes between hyperemesis patients and the general population were similar for mean birth weight, mean gestational age, deliveries less than 37 weeks, Apgar scores, perinatal mortality or incidence of fetal anomalies. Our incidence of hyperemesis (1.5%) is similar to that of other published reports.

Conclusion: Women with hyperemesis have similar demographic characteristics to the general obstetric population, and have similar obstetric outcomes.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Embryonic and Fetal Development*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hyperemesis Gravidarum / epidemiology
  • Hyperemesis Gravidarum / physiopathology*
  • Incidence
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications / physiopathology*
  • Pregnancy Outcome*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment