The association of appendicitis and blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is an exceptionally rare occurrence with a few case reports in the literature. The main question whether this association is a result of causative or coincidental relationship has not been evaluated among children. A retrospective clinical study was performed to clarify the pathogenesis, incidence, clinical characteristics and outcome of appendicitis diagnosed in children during the hospitalization period following blunt abdominal trauma (BAT). The records of 554 patients with BAT who were admitted to our unit between 1979 and 1993 inclusive were reviewed. Five patients (0.90%), 3 males and 2 females, with a mean age of 9.4 +/- 1.4 were found to have appendicitis. None of these patients had any signs or symptoms related to appendicitis prior to BAT. Bruising and rupture of the mesoappendix were noted in 3 patients while edema and hematoma of appendix and terminal ileum were found in two. Full recovery was achieved in all patients following appendicectomy. Our incidence of 0.90% is statistically significantly higher than the highest incidence rate of appendicitis stated in the literature during childhood (t-test for population proportion, t = 2.892; p < 0.05). We emphasise the possibility of a causative relationship between appendicitis and BAT depending on the clinical characteristics, operative findings, statistically significant high incidence rate and literature review.