It is critical to develop new therapies, such as gene therapy, which can impact on both local and metastatic prostate cancer progression. We have developed an orthotopic mouse model of metastatic prostate cancer using a cell line (RM-1) derived from the mouse prostate reconstitution (MPR) model system. This mouse model closely simulates the anatomical and biological milieu of the prostate and allows for realistic testing of experimental gene therapy protocols. Adenovirus (ADV)-mediated transduction of the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene in conjunction with ganciclovir (GCV) in this model led to significant suppression of growth and of spontaneous metastasis at 14 days post-tumor inoculation. Longer-term studies produced a significant survival advantage and a continued suppression of metastatic activity for treatment animals despite regrowth of the primary tumor. Challenge by injection of tumor cells into the tail vein following excision of treated and control s.c. primary tumors resulted in 40% reduction in lung colonization in the treatment group, indicating the possible production of systemic anti-metastatic activity following a single in situ treatment with ADV/HSV-tk + GCV in this model system.