In this report, we show that transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2) regulates C3 gene expression in the human monocyte cell lines, U937 and THP-1, and human peripheral blood monocytes. Treatment of U937 or THP-1 cells with TGF-beta2 resulted in a dose-dependent induction of C3 protein and mRNA expression. Dose-dependent increases of C3 protein and mRNA levels were also detected in TGF-beta2-treated primary blood monocytes, demonstrating that TGF-beta2 can modulate C3 expression in nontransformed monocytes. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that TGF-beta2-mediated induction of C3 mRNA and protein could be detected within 8 hr, and the induction was continuous up to 72 hr. Exposure of cells to TGF-beta2 for as little as 2 hr was sufficient to induce C3 expression. TGF-beta2 did not significantly increase C3 mRNA stability as determined by mRNA half-life studies. Collectively, our results demonstrate that TGF-beta2 regulates the expression of C3 in monocytes and suggest that TGF-beta2 may play a role in modulating the synthesis of C3 during inflammatory responses.