Pearson's marrow/pancreas syndrome is a disease associated with a large mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion. The various tissues of a patient contain heteroplasmic populations of wild-type (WT) and deleted mtDNA molecules. The clinical phenotype of Pearson's syndrome is variable and is not correlated with the size and position of the deletion. The histo- and cytological distribution of WT and deleted mtDNA molecules may be factors that correlate with the phenotypical expression of the disease. Here we introduce a new application of two-color FISH to visualize WT and deleted mtDNA simultaneously in a cell population of in vitro cultured skin fibroblasts of two patients with Pearson's syndrome. At the third passage of culturing, fibroblasts showed a remarkable heterogeneity of WT and deleted mtDNA: about 90% of the cells contained almost 100% WT mtDNA, and 10% of the cells contained predominantly deleted mtDNA. At the tenth passage of culturing, fibroblasts showed a reduction of intercellular heteroplasmy from 10% to 1%, while intracellular heteroplasmy was maintained. This new approach enables detailed analysis of distribution patterns of WT and deleted mtDNA molecules at the inter- and intracellular levels in clinical samples, and may contribute to a better understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships in patients with mitochondrial diseases.