Li(+)-regulated 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

Plant J. 1996 Dec;10(6):1027-36. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313x.1996.10061027.x.


In Arabidopsis thaliana, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase (ACS) is encoded by a multigene family consisting of at least five members whose expression is induced by hormones, developmental signals, and protein synthesis inhibition. Li+, known to interfere with the phosphoinositide (PI) second messenger system by inhibiting the activity of inositol-phosphate phosphatases, is one of the strongest inducers of ACC synthase activity in plants. Treatment of etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings with LiCl results in a rapid induction of the ACS5 gene. Also, LiCl represses the cycloheximide (CHX)-induced accumulation of the ACS2 mRNA. The effects of Li+ on the expression of ACS5 and ACS2 are specific, dose-dependent, and can be reversed by Ca2+ and mimicked by the protein kinase inhibitor K-252a. The results suggest that the regulation of some ACS genes by various inducers may involve protein kinase activity, which in turn may be controlled through an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)-mediated Ca2+ mobilization. Since plants contain no Li+, the cation appears to unmask pre-existing biochemical capacity that may be utilized by various unknown transducers during plant growth and development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Arabidopsis / enzymology
  • Arabidopsis / genetics*
  • Base Sequence
  • Biological Evolution
  • Calcium / pharmacology
  • Carbazoles / pharmacology
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Cycloheximide / pharmacology
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Enzyme Induction
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  • Genes, Plant
  • Genes, Reporter
  • Indole Alkaloids
  • Isoenzymes / biosynthesis
  • Isoenzymes / genetics*
  • Lithium / pharmacology*
  • Lyases / biosynthesis
  • Lyases / genetics*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Plants, Genetically Modified
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Signal Transduction


  • Carbazoles
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Indole Alkaloids
  • Isoenzymes
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • staurosporine aglycone
  • Cycloheximide
  • Lithium
  • Lyases
  • 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylate synthase
  • Calcium

Associated data

  • GENBANK/L29260
  • GENBANK/L29261