The modification of DNA by cytosine methylation is crucial for normal development. DNA methylation patterns are distinctive between tissues and are maintained with high fidelity during cell division. DNA methylation probably exerts its effects through alterations in chromatin structure, with a resultant effect on genetic transcription. 5-methylcytosine is also prone to spontaneous hydrolytic deamination to thymine. Whilst most G:T mismatches so produced are repaired, failure of mismatch repair leads to established mutation. Indeed, mutations that are the result of 5-methylcytosine transitions account for a disproportionate number of genetic mutations described in malignant and non-malignant disease. There is also evidence for substantial deregulation of DNA methylation in malignancy. Whether this deregulation is crucial for the transformation process, or simply an epiphenomenon associated with it, is still not established.