Objectives: We sought to determine the predictive value of factors influencing coronary collateral vascular responses in humans.
Background: There is limited information on the factors responsible for coronary collateral vascular development, despite the protective effect of collateral vessels in ischemic syndromes.
Methods: Angiography of the contralateral artery was performed during balloon coronary occlusion in 105 patients with single-vessel disease (left anterior descending coronary artery in 69 patients, left circumflex coronary artery in 4 patients, right coronary artery in 32 patients) and normal left ventricular function. Collateral vessels were graded according to the classification of Rentrop. The relative collateral vascular resistance was calculated in a subgroup of 34 patients by means of aortic pressure, coronary wedge pressure and collateral flow, defined as the transient increase of coronary blood flow velocity of the contralateral artery during balloon coronary occlusion. Ischemia during coronary occlusion was evaluated by the ST segment shift (mV) in a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG).
Results: A multivariate logistic analysis of clinical and angiographic variables revealed duration of angina (> or = 3 months, p < 0.0001), lesion severity (> or = 75% diameter stenosis, p < 0.0001) and proximal lesion location (p = 0.02) as independent factors positively associated with recruitability of collateral vessels, whereas the use of nitrates exerted an independent negative effect (p = 0.01). The regression equation yielded an overall predictive accuracy of 80%. The presence of recruitable collateral vessels during coronary occlusion resulted in a higher coronary wedge/aortic pressure ratio (mean [+/- SD] 0.35 +/- 0.13 vs. 0.27 +/- 0.12, p < 0.005), a lower relative collateral vascular resistance (6.7 +/- 7.4 vs. 21.3 +/- 10, p < 0.001) and a reduction of ECG signs of ischemia (0.14 +/- 0.19 vs. 0.38 +/- 0.33 mV, p < 0.001). The relative collateral vascular resistance was the best predictor for recruitability of collateral vessels compared with the other variables related to collateral vascular growth (p < 0.05).
Conclusions: Clinical and angiographic variables predict recruitability of collateral vessels with an 80% overall accuracy. These findings are important for risk stratification of patients undergoing interventions for ischemic coronary syndromes.