Distinct costimulatory molecules are required for the induction of effector and memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes

J Exp Med. 1997 Jan 20;185(2):251-62. doi: 10.1084/jem.185.2.251.


A successful T cell immune response has two major products: effector T cells which directly or indirectly remove the antigens, and memory T cells, which allow a faster and more efficient recall response when challenged by related antigens. An important issue is whether costimulatory molecules on the antigen-presenting cells are involved in determining whether T cells will differentiate into effector or memory cells after antigenic stimulation. To address this issue, we have produced mice with targeted mutations of either the heat-stable antigen (HSA), or both HSA and CD28. We show that CD28/B7 and HSA provide two alternative costimulatory pathways for induction of immunological memory to influenza virus. Furthermore, our results revealed that B7 is essential for the generation of effector T cells from either naive or memory T cells, while HSA is not necessary for the generation of effector T cells. Our results demonstrate that the induction of memory T cells and effector T cells can utilize distinct costimulatory molecules. These results have important implications on lineage relationship between effector and memory T cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • B7-1 Antigen / immunology*
  • Cricetinae
  • Immunologic Memory*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mutation
  • Rats
  • Spleen / cytology
  • Spleen / immunology
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / cytology
  • T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic / immunology*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • B7-1 Antigen