Over the past decade, ischemic nephropathy has gained recognition as a distinct and treatable clinical entity. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is the leading cause of ischemic renal disease. Among the aging population entering renal replacement programs, both renal artery and systemic atherosclerosis are common. Over recent years, patients with ischemic renal disease are presenting later and have diffuse atherosclerosis and other comorbid conditions. Improved screening techniques, patient selection, and interventional approaches have resulted in better outcomes in most centers. Percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty has emerged as the treatment of choice in some centers for nonostial renal artery stenosis. Both percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty and surgical repair have proven beneficial for renal function salvage. Many studies have elegantly demonstrated the pathophysiologic consequences of acute ischemia to the kidney. The concepts derived from acute studies have served as a springboard for considering the adaptive and maladaptive renal responses to chronic ischemia.