Case-based reasoning (CBR) focuses on analogy in the context of solving real-world problems. Its research methodology of computational modeling is aimed at deriving hypotheses about cognition. CBR's computational models show the roles of encoding, retrieval, and adaptation in analogical reasoning processes. In addition, its algorithms provide insight into what it might take to enhance human cognition. CBR as a plausible cognitive model can thus advise on educational philosophy, educational practice, and design of educational software.