Risk factors for oral human papillomavirus in adults infected and not infected with human immunodeficiency virus

Sex Transm Dis. 1997 Jan;24(1):23-31. doi: 10.1097/00007435-199701000-00006.


Background and objectives: To investigate in a cross-sectional study the determinants of oral human papillomavirus infection in 287 individuals who are sexually active.

Goal: To assess prevalence as well as risk factors for oral human papillomavirus infection.

Study design: One hundred seventy-eight human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive (158 men and 20 women) and 109 human immunodeficiency virus-negative (73 men and 36 women) individuals were recruited consecutively from sexually transmitted disease-human immunodeficiency virus clinics and gastrointestinal endoscopy clinics. Oral brushings were tested with the L1 consensus polymerase chain reaction assay for human papillomavirus detection.

Results: Human papillomavirus DNA was detected in 32 (11.2%) of 287 individuals. Associated with oral human papillomavirus infection on univariate analyses were human immunodeficiency virus infection (odds ratio, 6.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.0-23.2), homosexuality (odds ratio, 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-9.4), unprotected oral sex (odds ratio, 5.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-18.4), syphilis (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-6.3), gonorrhea (odds ratio, 4.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.9-9.1), Chlamydia trachomatis (odds ratio, 4.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-10.6), and genital herpes (odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-6.5). Human immunodeficiency virus infection and C. trachomatis were independently predictive of human papillomavirus infection in multivariate stepwise logistic regression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • HIV Seropositivity / complications*
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mouth Diseases / etiology*
  • Papillomaviridae*
  • Papillomavirus Infections / etiology*
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases / etiology*
  • Tumor Virus Infections / etiology*