Congenital malformations of the lung and mediastinum--a quarter century of experience from a single institution

J Pediatr Surg. 1997 Jan;32(1):44-7. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3468(97)90090-7.


Congenital malformations of the lung are rare and vary widely in their presentation and severity. The authors reviewed 25 years of experience with specific reference to diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. From July 1970 to June 1995, 70 patients were diagnosed with congenital malformations of the lung, which included sequestration (n = 20), foregut anomalies (n = 20), congenital lobar emphysema (CLE; n = 10), congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM; n = 5), benign lung cysts (n = 6), lung aplasia/ hypoplasia (n = 4), and other miscellaneous disorders (n = 5). All patients with pulmonary hypoplasia presented at birth. With the exception of one patient, infants with CCAM and CLE presented before 5 months of age. All other patients presented from birth to 16 years of age. A prenatal diagnosis was accurate in two patients. Although prompt surgical management is the rule, the exceptions were children with bilateral lung involvement. Corrective surgery was delayed in some patients in whom extended respiratory support was required or in whom the delay led to an increase in pulmonary reserve. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was used in two patients pre- and postoperatively to manage persistent pulmonary hypertension. This review, representing the largest series of congenital lung lesions, showed that (1) prenatal diagnosis is useful but generally does not change the outcome; (2) computerized tomography (CT) is the optimum postnatal diagnostic imaging modality if chest radiography is not definitive; (3) ECMO can be an adjunct in treating associated pulmonary hypertension; (4) pulmonary resection (lobectomy) is the surgical procedure of choice for most lesions; (5) expected survival is good; and (6) pulmonary hypertension is the most common cause of mortality.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Age Factors
  • Bronchopulmonary Sequestration / epidemiology
  • Cause of Death
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Congenital Abnormalities / epidemiology
  • Cystic Adenomatoid Malformation of Lung, Congenital / epidemiology
  • Cysts / congenital
  • Cysts / epidemiology
  • District of Columbia / epidemiology
  • Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / mortality
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / therapy
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Lung / abnormalities*
  • Lung / diagnostic imaging
  • Lung / surgery
  • Mediastinum / abnormalities*
  • Mediastinum / diagnostic imaging
  • Mediastinum / surgery
  • Pneumonectomy / methods
  • Prenatal Diagnosis
  • Pulmonary Emphysema / congenital
  • Pulmonary Emphysema / epidemiology
  • Respiratory Therapy
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Survival Rate
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Treatment Outcome