Active stage of autoimmune diabetes is associated with the expression of a novel cytokine, IGIF, which is located near Idd2

J Clin Invest. 1997 Feb 1;99(3):469-74. doi: 10.1172/JCI119181.


Recently, interferon-gamma-inducing-factor (IGIF) has been described as a novel monokine that is a more potent interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) inducer than IL-12. By cloning IGIF from affected tissue and studying IGIF gene expression, we describe for the first time a close association of this cytokine with an autoimmune disease. The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops autoimmune insulitis and diabetes which can be accelerated and synchronized by a single injection of cyclophosphamide. IGIF mRNA was demonstrated by reverse transcriptase PCR in NOD mouse pancreas during early stages of insulitis. Levels of IGIF mRNA increased rapidly after cyclophosphamide treatment and preceded a rise in IFN-gamma mRNA, and subsequently diabetes. Interestingly, these kinetics mimick that of IL-12p40 mRNA, resulting in a close correlation of individual mRNA levels. Cloning of the IGIF cDNA from pancreas RNA followed by sequencing revealed identity with the IGIF sequence cloned from Kupffer cells and in vivo preactivated macrophages. When extending our study to macrophages of the spleen we observed that NOD mouse macrophages responded to cyclophosphamide with IGIF gene expression while macrophages from Balb/c mice treated in parallel did not. The IGIF gene position is located within the Idd2 interval on mouse chromosome 9 and therefore it is a candidate for the Idd2 susceptible gene. We conclude that IGIF expression is abnormally regulated in autoimmune NOD mice and closely associated with diabetes development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Cell Adhesion
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Cyclophosphamide / pharmacology
  • Cytokines / genetics*
  • DNA, Complementary / genetics
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / genetics*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / immunology*
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Interferon-gamma / genetics
  • Interferon-gamma / metabolism
  • Interleukin-12 / genetics
  • Interleukin-12 / metabolism
  • Interleukin-18
  • Kupffer Cells / metabolism
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Macrophages / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Inbred NOD
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Pancreas / metabolism
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis
  • RNA, Messenger / isolation & purification
  • Spleen / cytology
  • Spleen / drug effects
  • Spleen / metabolism


  • Cytokines
  • DNA, Complementary
  • Interleukin-18
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Interleukin-12
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Cyclophosphamide

Associated data

  • GENBANK/U66244