This study examined the effects of garlic and fish-oil supplementation (alone and in combination) on fasting serum lipids and lipoproteins in hypercholesterolemic subjects. After an initial run-in phase, 50 male subjects with moderate hypercholesterolemia were randomly assigned for 12 wk to one of four groups: 1) 900 mg garlic placebo/d + 12 g oil placebo/d; 2) 900 mg garlic/d + 12 g oil placebo/d; 3) 900 mg garlic placebo/d + 12 g fish oil/d, providing 3.6 g n-3 fatty acids/d; and 4) 900 mg garlic/d + 12 g fish oil/d. In the placebo group, mean serum total cholesterol, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triacylglycerols were not significantly changed in relation to baseline. Mean group total cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower with garlic+fish oil (-12.2%) and with garlic (-11.5%) after 12 wk but not with fish oil alone. Mean LDL-C concentrations were reduced with garlic+fish oil (-9.5%) and with garlic (-14.2%) but were raised with fish oil (+8.5%). Mean triacylglycerol concentrations were reduced with garlic+fish oil (-34.3%) and fish oil alone (-37.3%). The garlic groups (with and without fish oil) had significantly lower ratios of total cholesterol to high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-C to HDL-C. In summary, garlic supplementation significantly decreased both total cholesterol and LDL-C whereas fish-oil supplementation significantly decreased triacylglycerol concentrations and increased LDL-C concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. The combination of garlic and fish oil reversed the moderate fish-oil-induced rise in LDL-C. Coadministration of garlic with fish oil was well-tolerated and had a beneficial effect on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations by providing a combined lowering of total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triacylglycerol concentrations as well as the ratios of total cholesterol to HDL-C and LDL-C to HDL-C.