The theory of care-seeking behavior was tested in the context of mammography use among midwestern women (N = 178). In multivariate logistic regressions, mammography adherence in the past 5 years was related to habit, the interaction of anxiety and barriers, belief in one's risk of breast cancer, age, and family history of breast cancer. Recent use of mammograms (i.e., in the past 1 or 2 years, depending on age) was related to norm and habit. Intention was related to utility beliefs regarding mammography, norm, habit, and belief in one's risk of breast cancer. As proposed from theory, anxiety and barriers interacted to influence adherence, the variables of habit, utility beliefs, and norm were related to either recent use or intention. Contrary to theory, belief in one's risk of breast cancer, age, and family history of breast cancer were related to adherence or intention after controlling for theoretically derived variables. The explanatory variables for each outcome were not identical, indicating that these mammography-related outcomes are characteristically different.