The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics following administration of furosemide (40 mg intravenously) have been studied before and after treatment with probenecid (0.5 gm orally every 6 hr for 3 days) and spironolactone (200-mg initial oral dose followed by 50 mg every 6 hr for 3 days) in 6 normal male subjects. Urine losses during each study period were replaced with saline-dextrose-KCl intravenously. The study was performed with the use of a Latin-square design. Probenecid pretreatment induced significant reductions in renal clearance of furosemide by 78%, the extrarenal clearance by 56%, and the volume of distribution by 52%. As a consequence, furosemide half-life was increased by 54%. Probenecid significantly reduced the rate of sodium excretion at all plasma concentrations of furosemide, but the ratio between urinary furosemide concentration and urinary sodium concentration was not altered. Since the proportion of furosemide excreted unchanged in the urine was not markedly changed, total diuretic response was not influenced by probenecid. There was no evidence of any pharmacokinetic interaction between spironolactone and furosemide. The relationship of furosemide kinetics to dynamics observed in these studies confirms that, in man, the diuretic response is determined by drug that reaches the renal tubule rather than the drug level in plasma.