Addition of 10(-4) M 7,8-benzoflavone to homogenates of human liver samples obtained by autopsy or surgical biopsy increased the rate of benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylation up to 11-fold. 7,8-Benzoflavone also increased the rates of hydroxylation of zoxazolamine and antipyrine at 10(-4) M but inhibited these reactions at 10(-6) M. The effects of 7,8-benzoflavone on the hydroxylation of benzo[a]pyrene and zoxazolamine in microsomes from human liver were similar to those in homogenates. Addition of 7,8-benzoflavone to homogenates of surgical biopsy samples of human liver had little or no effect on the rates of oxidative metabolism of 7-ethoxycoumarin, coumarin, and hexobarbital. Marked individuality for the activating and inhibiting effects of 7,8-benzoflavone was observed in different liver samples. This individuality may result both from the presence of multiple monooxygenases in varying amounts and proportions in the different liver samples and from a selective effect of 7,8-benzoflavone on certain of the monooxygenases.