MEKKs, GCKs, MLKs, PAKs, TAKs, and tpls: upstream regulators of the c-Jun amino-terminal kinases?

Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1997 Feb;7(1):67-74. doi: 10.1016/s0959-437x(97)80111-6.

Abstract

Regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members - which include the extracellular response kinases (ERKs), p38/HOG1, and the c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs) - plays a central role in mediating the effects of diverse stimuli encompassing cytokines, hormones, growth factors and stresses such as osmotic imbalance, heat shock, inhibition of protein synthesis and irradiation. A rapidly increasing number of kinases that activate the JNK pathways has been described recently, including the MAPK/ERK kinase kinases, p21-activated kinases, germinal center kinase, mixed lineage kinases, tumor progression locus 2, and TGF-beta-activated kinase. Thus, regulation of the JNK pathway provides an interesting example of how many different stimuli can converge into regulating pathways critical for the determination of cell fate.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases / physiology*
  • JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases*
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / physiology*
  • Signal Transduction / physiology*

Substances

  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases
  • JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases