Spatial expression of a forkhead homologue in the sea urchin embryo

Mech Dev. 1996 Dec;60(2):163-73. doi: 10.1016/s0925-4773(96)00608-9.


Echinoderms are the sister group of the chordates and hemichordates within the deuterostomes. They lack a notochord or any structures obviously homologous with it. To gain insight into developmental mechanisms important in the origin and early evolution of chordates, we investigated sea urchin homologues of chordate genes that are implicated in notochord formation, viz. Brachyury and HNF-3 beta. Here we report the pattern of expression of a sea urchin orthologue of forkhead, Hphnf3 which is present as a single copy per haploid genome. An Hphnf3 transcript of 3.0 kb was first detected at the swimming blastula stage, accumulated maximally at the gastrula and prism-embryo stages, and decreased at the pluteus-larva stage. In situ hybridization signals were found in cells of the vegetal plate of the swimming blastula. During gastrulation, intense staining was evident in the cells surrounding the blastopore, whereas weak staining was detected in the invaginating archenteron. At the prism-embryo stage, the entire archenteron stained intensely; then, at pluteus stage, the larva staining decreased in intensity. The forkhead and Brachyury genes begin to be expressed almost simultaneously in sea urchin embryos, in the vegetal plate at the late blastula stage. After the onset of gastrulation, however, Hphnf3 is expressed in the posterior part of the archenteron, whereas the Brachyury orthologue, HpTa, is expressed in the secondary mesenchyme founder cells, which occupy the anterior tip of archenteron. Hphnf3 may contribute to specification of embryonic cells as archenteron, and the role of HpTa may be directed towards specification of mesodermal founder cells. Except for the basal character of expression in endoderm and endomesoderm, these transcription factors are clearly utilized differently in chordates.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Drosophila
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian / chemistry
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian / metabolism*
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics*
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism*
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Sea Urchins / embryology*
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Xenopus
  • Zebrafish


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • Hphnf3 protein, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Transcription Factors

Associated data

  • GENBANK/D83182